Flora and Fauna

 

Flora

[For Fauna (birds), see below Plants]

Plants                                                           September 2018

Compiled by Marilyn MacKellar

Alphabetical by common name

Trees, Evergreen [Coniferous]

Common Name

Latin Name

Notes

Cedars, Eastern white

Thuja occidentalis

Firs, Balsam?

Hemlock, Eastern

Tsuga canadensis

Tamarack/Larch

Larix larcicina/decidua

Pines

Red or Norway

Austrian

Jack

White, Eastern

Pinus resinosa

Pinus nigra

Pinus banksiana

Pinus strobus

needles in pairs, long, brittle, reddish bark

needles in pairs, long, flexible

needles in pairs, short

needles in bunches of 5

Spruces

Colorado (Blue)

White

Picea

Picea pungens

Picea glauca

3 shades with different needles

Trees, Deciduous [Broadleaf]

Common Name

Latin Name

Notes

Apples [wild]

Malus domestica

Alders

European Black?

Alnus glutinosa

Rounded leaves. Alien

Ash

Red/green

White

European

Fraxinus pennsylvanica

Fraxinus americana

Fraxinus excelsior

7 toothed leaflets on winged stalks, wavy edges [not hairy= Green]

Black buds, resembles black ash, dry places

Aspen

Trembling

Large-toothed

Populus tremuloides

Populus grandidentata

Basswood

Tilia americana

Beech, American

Fagus grandifolia

Birch, White/Silver

Betula papyrifera

Buckeye, Ohio

Aesculus glabra

Buckthorn, European

Rhamnus cathartica

Cherries,

Black

Japanese

Weeping [ornamental]

Prunus serotina

Prunus serrulata

Cottonwood, Eastern

Populus deltoides

Crabapples

Malus

Elm

American
Wych/Scotch

Siberian

White

Ulmus americana

U. glabra
U. pumila

U. americana

Gingko

Gingko biloba

Gymnosperm, like conifers, but loses leaves

Hackberry, Common

Celtis occidentalis

Hawthorn

Cockspur thorn

Hawthorn

Crataegus spp

Crataegus crus-galli L

C. succulanta Link

200-1200 kinds in N. Am

two kinds here, one with shiny leaves

Shiny obovate leaves, serrated at ends

Elliptic or ovate leaves, lobed, serrate, leathery, more common here

Honey Locust

Gledisia triacnthos

Horse-chestnut

Aesculus hippocastanum

Kentucky coffee tree

Gymnocladus dioica

Linden, Little-leaf

Tilia cordata

Maples

Amur

Manitoba

Norway

Red

Silver

Sugar

Acer ginnala

Acer negundo

Acer platanoides

Acer rubra

Acer saccharinum

Acer saccharum

China/Japan decorative alien, from gardens

Alien

Mountain ash, American or Rowan

Sorbus americana/aucuparia

Orange berries

Mulberry, White

Morus alba

Oaks

Bur

Chinquapin

English

Red

White

Quercus macrocarpa

Quercus muehlenbergii

Quercus robur

Quercus rubra

Quercus alba

pale grey bark

Tulip Tree

Liriodendron tulipifera

Walnut, black

Juglans nigra

Willows

Black

Hybrid Crack

Heartleaf

Peachleaf

Shining

Salix negra

Salix x rubens

S. eriocephala

Salix amygdaloides

Salix lucida

Largest narrow lance-like leaves

The common willow tree in Toronto

Usually has silvery galls at twig tips

Leaf tips drawn out

Shiny pointed leaves

Witch hazel

Hamamelis virginiana

Shrubs

Common Name

Latin Name

Notes

Cherry, choke

Prunus virginiana

Cranberry’, Highbush/Viburnum

Viburnum opulus var Americana or

Viburnum trilobum

Not a real cranberry

2016 planting list

Currant

Wild black currant

Ribes

Ribes americana

2016 planting

Dogwood

Alternate leaved

Grey

Red osier

Round-leaved

Red-panicled (gray)

Silky

Cornus alternifolia

Cornus racemosa

Cornus stolonifera or C. sericea

Cornus rugosa

Cornus racemosa

Cornus amomum

Elderberry

Common

Red

Sambucus Canadensis

Sambucus pubens

Honeysuckle

Lonicera

Tartarian? European? Morrow?

Honeysuckle, bush

Diervilla lonicera

Loosestrife, Dotted

Lysimachia punctata

Garden escapee?

Nannyberry

Viburnum lentago

Ninebark

Physocarpus opulifolius

Raspberries see below

Roses

Multiflora

Smooth

??

Rosa multiflora

R. blanda

rambling bushes, white flowers (overpass)

wicked thorns, low, round hips (Native garden)

Serviceberry

Smooth

Amelanchier sp

Amelanchier laevis

2016 planting

Sumach

Staghorn

Fragrant

Rhus typhina

Rhus aromatica

Viburnum

Maple leaved

See also Nannyberry, Cranberry

Viburnum acerifolium

Vines

Common Name

Latin Name

Notes

Bindweed See under Non-woody plants

Nightshade, woody/climbing/Bittersweet

Solarnum dulcamara

Peanut, Hog See under Non-woody plants

Poison ivy

Toxicodendron radicans

Virginia creeper

Parthenocissus quinquefolia/inserta

Wild Grapes (Riverbank grapes)

Vitis riparia

Non-woody plants [Wildflowers]

Common Name

Latin Name

Notes

Artichoke, Jerusalem

Helianthus tuberosis

Jagged opposed leaves, hairy stem

Asters

Arrow-leaved

Azure Aster

Bog Aster

Bushy?

Calico Aster

Heath Aster

New England Aster

Panicled Aster

Purple-stemmed Aster

Rush Aster

Schreber’s Aster

Smooth

Willow Aster

Symphyotrichum urophyllum

Symphyotrichum oolentangiense

Oclemena nemoralis

Aster dumosis

Symphyotrichum lateriflorum

Symphyotrichum ericoides

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum

Symphyotrichum praealtum

Symphyotrichum boreale

Eurybia schreberi

Symphyotrichum laeve

Symphyotrichum praealtum

(formerly Aster oolentangiensis)

(formerly Aster nemoralis) blue, single flower [photo]

(formerly Aster lateriflorus) White

(formerly Aster ericoides) small white

(formerly Aster novae-angliae) dark purple

(formerly Aster lanceolatus) white

(formerly Aster praealtus) web of veins on leaves

(formerly Aster junciformis)

(formerly Aster schreberi)

(formerly Aster laevis)

(formerly Aster praealtus) blue

Avens, Yellow

Geum aleppicum var strictum

Beggar-ticks See also Bur-marigold

Bidens frondosa

pitchfork burs, no petals

Bergamot, Wild

Monarda fistulosa

Bindweed,

Field

Hedge

Convolvulus arvensis

Convolvulus sepium

pointed lobes on leaves

Black Medick See Clover, Hop

Blazing Star

Dense

Scaly

Liatrus spicata

Liatrus squarosa

Bloodroot

Sanguinaria canadensis

Bluebur See Stickweed

Boneset

Eupatorium perfoliatum

Buckwheat, Tartary

Fagopyrum tartaricum

Bugle

Ajuga reptans

Alien

Burdock

Common

Great

Arctium minus

Arctium lappa

Alien

Bur-marigolds

See also: Beggarticks, Tickseed-

sunflower

Bidens

Butter & eggs See Toadflax

Buttercup, common

Ranunculus aeris

Campion, bladder

Silene vulgaris

Canada anemone

Anemone canadensis

near cricket pitch

Catchfly, Night-flowering

Silene noctiflora

Chickweed

Field

Mouse-ear

Cerastium arvense

Cerastium fontanum

Chicory

Cichorium intybus

Alien

Clovers

Alfalfa/Lucerne

Alsike Rabbit-foot clover”

Clover, Hop or Black medick

Red clover

White clover

White sweet clover

Medicago sativa

Trifolium hybridum

Trifolium agrarium

Trifolium pratense]

Trifolium repens

Melilotus alba

All alien, many at Ava end

little yellow balls [Kort]

Coltsfoot

Tussilago farfara

like cucumber leaves when finished flowering

Comfrey

Simphylium officinale

White flowers + purple version (S. officinale or S. asperum)

Coneflower, Gray-headed

Ratibida pinnata

droopy pale yellow petals, light brown/purple prominent centre, 6-8 ft tall

Cup-plant, Yellow

Silphium perfoliatum

tall with yellow daisy-like flowers, big leaves wrapped around stems

Daisy fleabane See Fleabane, daisy

Dame’s rocket

Hesperis matronalis

Alien

Dandelion

Taraxacum officinale

Alien

Dock

Curled

Bitter

Rumex crispus

R. obtusifolius

Alien

Dogbane,

Intermediate

Spreading

Common

Apocynum androsaemifolium

Apocynum medium

Apocynum cannabinum

Red stems, ‘shrublike’, 1-4 ft., pink flowers

Indian Hemp

Dog strangling vine

Cynanchum rossicum

very invasive on hillside beside cricket

Doorweed See Smartweed

Aka Prostrate knotweed

Flags, yellow see Iris, yellow

Fleabane, Daisy

Erigeron annuus

Forget-me-nots

Myosotis scorpioides

from a garden, alien

Garlic mustard

Allaria petiolata

very invasive

Goat’s beard, yellow

Tragopogon pratensis

Goldenrods

Blue-stem?

Bog goldenrod?

Early goldenrod

Canada goldenrod

Grass-leaved goldenrod

Late goldenrod

Rough stemmed?

Tall goldenrod

Zigzag/Broad-leaved

Solidago axillaris, Solidago gracilis

Solidago uliginosa

Solidago juncea

Solidago Canadensis

Euthamia graminifolia

Solidago gigantean

Solidago rugosa

Solidago altissima

Solidago flexicaulis

More likely than bog in Cedarvale

(formerly Solidago purshii)

(formerly Solidago graminifolia)

Galls

Grape hyacinths

from a garden, alien

Hedge parsley See Parsley, hedge

Hemlocks

Water

Cicula maculata

poisonous – don’t touch!

Hemp, Indian

See also Dogbanes

Apocynum cannibinum

Hog peanut See Peanut, Hog

Hop Clover or Black medick See Clover

Horseweed

Erigeron canadensis

Indian hemp See Hemp, Indian

Apocynum cannibinum

Iris, Yellow

Iris pseudoacorus

Jerusalem Artichoke See Artichoke, Jerusalem

Jewel weed/Touch-me-not

Pale

Spotted

Impatiens pallida

Impatiens capensis

yellow

orange

Joe-Pye weed, Spotted

Eupatorium maculatum

Knotweed See Smartweed

Lady’s thumb

Polygonium persicaria

Smartweed

Lamb’s quarters

Chenopodium album

Loosestrife

Dotted

Purple

Lysmachia punctata

Lythrum salicaria

Shrub

Alien

May apples/May umbrellas/Mandrake

Podophyllum peltatum

Meadow-rue

Thalictrum

Flowering period determines which one

Meadowsweet, narrow-leaved

Spiraea alba

Milkweed, Common

Asclepias syriaca

Motherwort

Leonurus cardiaca

Mullein, Common

Verbascum thapsus

Nettle, Stinging

Urtica dioica

Nightshade See under Vines

Nipplewort

Lapsana communis

Parsley, Hedge, Japanese

Torilis japonica

Looks like Poison Hemlock

Parsnip One of:

Cow parsnip ?

Water parsnip?

Heracleum maximum

Sium suave

Not clear which. Not close enough to path to identify

Peanut, Hog

Amphicarpa bracteata

twines like a vine

Periwinkle/Myrtle

Vinca minor

from a garden, alien

Plantain

Common

Ribgrass

Plantago major

Plantago lanceolata

Alien

Pale, 3-veined, grass-like leaves, short spike

Purslaine Speedwell

Veronica peregrina

Pussytoes, Field

Antennaria neglecta

Patches chopped short by mowing to south of native garden

Ragweed

Common

Great

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Ambrosia trifida

Raspberry

Black

Flowering purple

Red

Rubus occidentalis

Rubus odoratus

Rubus strigosus

2016 planting

St John’s Wort

Shrubby?

Canadian?

Hypericum spathulatum

Hypericum canadense

Near Spadina Village exit

Scillas

from a garden, alien

Shepherd’s purse

Capsella bursa-pastoris

Smartweed (knotweed)

Doorweed

Lady’s thumb

Pink/Pennsylvania

Pale

Polygonum prolificum

Polygonum persicaria

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Polygonum lapathifolium

Alien

Alien, close to the ground

paler, dark mark on leaves, no yellow dots on leaves, reddish stems

reddish, pink flowers, reddish joints

green stems, green & pink flowers, drooping

Snakeroot, White

Eupatorium rugosum

Sow thistle

Field

Common

Spiny leaved [not seen]

Sonchus arvensus

Sonchus oleraceus

Sonchus asper

Alien

Stickweed or Bluebur

Lappula squarrosa

Sunflower, Common

Helianthus annuus

Tansy, common

Tanacetum vulgare

Thistles

Canada

Bull

Scotch

Cirsium arvense

Cirsium vulgare

Onopordum acanthium

small, branched

wings along stem, pale tips to spines Alien

triangular spines on stem Alien

Tickseed-Sunflowers

See also: Beggar-ticks, Burr-marigolds

Bidens

**top of eastern hill above lawns++ P186

Toadflax

Linaria vulgaris

Alien

Trefoil, Birdsfoot

Lotus corniculatis

Trout lilies/Dog-toothed violets/Adder’s tongues

Erythronium americanum

Turtlehead

Chelone glabra

Vervain

Blue

White

Verbena hastate

Verbena urticifolia

SW corner of native garden

Vetch, purple

Vicia americana

Viper’s Bugloss/Blueweed

Echium vulgare

Black Medick See Clover, Hop

Water hemlock See Hemlocks

Water parsnip

Sium suave

Wild carrot/Queen Anne’s lace

Daucus carota

Alien

Wild lettuce

Lactuca canadensis

Willow-herb, Hairy

Epilobium hirsutum

Wood sorrel

Common

Yellow

Oxalis Montana

Oxalis stricta

Grasses, Reeds, Rushes

Common Name

Latin Name

Notes

Barnyard grass

Echinochioa crusgalli

Bearded short husk grass?

Blue joint grass?

Calamagrotis canadensis

Cattails, Broad-leaved, narrow-leaved

Typha latifolia/angustifolia

Cutgrass, rice

Leersia oryzoides

Fowl manna grass?

Glyceria, striata

Fringed brome grass?

Path rush

Bromus ciliatus or Avena fatua

very invasive, near Footpath overpass

Phragmites or Reed

Phragmites communis

Reed canary grass

Phaslaris arundinacea

Squirrel tail grass

Hordeum jubilatum

Timothy grass

Phleum pratense

Unidentified grass

Grass like phragmites but different seed head, sandpaper leaves

Other

Common Name

Latin Name

Notes

Ferns

Sensitive

Onoclea sensibilis

Horsetails

Field

Swamp

Woodland

Equisetum arvense

Equisetum

Equisetum sylvaticum

upward sweep

curved downwards

Possibly:

Common Name

Latin Name

Notes

Biennial wormwood

Seen 2014 but not 2015

Loosestrife, fringed

Lysimachia ciliata

next to purple loosestrife – yellow flowers, rel. to primroses

References

Brown, Lauren

Grasses: An identification guide. Houghton Mifflin, 1979. Peterson Nature Library

Chambers, Brenda et al

Forest plants of Central Ontario. Lone Pine, 1996

Cullira, William

Native ferns, moss and grasses. Houghton-Mifflin 2008 includes sedges. Aimed at gardens, good illus.

Dickinson, Richard & France Royer

Plants of Southern Ontario. Lone Pine 2014

Weeds of North America. Univ. of Chicago Pr 2014 [WNA]

Dickinson, Timothy et al

The ROM field guide to wildflowers of Ontario. ROM/McClelland & Stewart 2004 [ROM]

Dore, W.G. and John Mcneill

Grasses of Ontario. Agriculture Canada, 1980 (Based on F.C. Harrison’s Ontario Agricultural College Experimental Farm Bulletin)

Farrar, John Laird

Trees in Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside and Canada Forest Service, 1995. ** keys are excellent

Hosie, Robert C.

Native trees of Canada. Canada, Dept of Forestry. See also its sequel, Trees in Canada by Farrar

McKay, Sheila & Paul Catling

Trees, shrubs & flowers to know in Ontario. J.M. Dent 1979 (out of print) [McKay]

Newcomb, L,

Newcomb’s Wildflower Guide, Little Brown, 1977

Peterson, Roger Tory & Margaret McKenny

A field guide to wildflowers of Northeastern and North-central North America. Houghton-Mifflin. Also books on trees and shrubs [P]

http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/peterson/plants.cfm

Petrides, G.A.

Trees and Shrubs, Houghton-Mifflin, 1972. Peterson Field Guides

Soper, James H. & Margaret L. Heimburger

Shrubs of Ontario, ROM, 1982 Includes roses, grapes, willows

Toronto, City of Toronto. Urban Forestry

Native ferns, grasses and wildflowers.

Fauna

Birds

Birds of Cedarvale Ravine, compiled by Ken Morin, July 2017, with later additions.

DUCKS & GEESE

Mallard Duck

Canada Goose

HERONS

Great Blue Heron

VULTURES

Turkey Vulture

HAWKS

Red tailed Hawk

Cooper’s Hawk

Sharp shinned Hawk

Osprey

FALCONS

Merlin

GULLS

Ring billed Gull

Herring Gull

PIGEON & DOVES

Rock Pigeon

Mourning Dove

CUCKOOS

Yellow billed Cuckoo

GOATSUCKERS

Common Nighthawk

SWIFTS

Chimney Swift

HUMMINGBIRDS

Ruby throated Hummingbird

WOODPECKERS

Downy Woodpecker

Hairy Woodpecker

Northern Flicker

TYRANT FLYCATCHERS

Eastern Wood Peewee

Great Crested Flycatcher

VIREOS

Warbling Vireo

Red eyed Vireo

Yellow-throated vireo

CROWS & JAYS

Blue Jay

American Crow

Raven

SWALLOWS

Tree Swallow

CHICKADEES

Black capped Chickadee

NUTHATCHES

Red breasted Nuthatch

White breasted Nuthatch

WRENS

Carolina Wren

House Wren

Winter Wren

KINGLETS

Ruby crowned Kinglet

Golden crowned Kinglet

CREEPERS

Brown Creeper

THRUSHES

Hermit Thrush

Swainson’s Thrush

American Robin

MOCKINGBIRDS

Gray Catbird

Northern Mockingbird

STARLINGS

European Starling

WAXWINGS

Cedar Waxwing

WOOD WARBLERS

Yellow Warbler

Chestnut sided Warbler

Magnolia Warbler

Cape May Warbler

Black throated Blue Warbler

Yellow rumped Warbler (Myrtle Warbler)

Black throated Green Warbler

Blackburnian Warbler

Palm Warbler

Black and white Warbler

Orange-crowned Warbler

Tennessee Warbler

American Redstart

Ovenbird

Common Yellowthroat

TANAGERS

Scarlet Tanager

EMBERIZIDAE

Eastern Towhee

American Tree Sparrow

Chipping Sparrow

Fox Sparrow

Song Sparrow

White throated Sparrow

White crowned Sparrow

Dark eyed Junco (Slate coloured)

CARDINALS & ALLIES

Northern Cardinal

Rose breasted Grosbeak

Indigo Bunting

BLACKBIRDS

Red winged Blackbird

Common Grackle

Brown headed Cowbird

Baltimore Oriole

FINCHES

House Finch

Purple Finch

OLD WORLD SPARROWS

House Sparrow

OWLS

Eastern Screech Owl

Butterflies

Cedarvale Park is surveyed for butterflies once a year during the Toronto Centre Butterfly Count. We walk from the St. Clair W subway station up to the open fields.

We recorded 11 species on July 8, 2017 as follows:

Pieris rapae                       Cabbage White

Celastrina lucia                 Northern Azure

Cupido comyntas             Eastern Tailed-Blue

Satyrium acadica             Acadian Hairstreak  (one of the few places in GTA to see this species)

Danaus plexippus             Monarch

Nymphalis antiopa          Mourning Cloack

Polygonia comma            Eastern Comma

Polygonia interrogationis Question Mark

Vanessa atalanta             Red Admiral

Polites peckius                  Peck’s Skipper

Thymelicus lineola           European Skipper

A second count took place on July 14, 2018:

Name                            Number

Black Swallowtail               1

Cabbage White                 27

Clouded Sulphur                3

Orange Sulphur                  1

Acadian Hairstreak            5

Summer Azure                    4

Eastern Comma                   4

Compton Tortoiseshell       1

Mourning Cloak                   2

Monarch                                6

Silver-spotted Skipper        1

European Skipper               2

Long Dash                            1

Northern Broken-Dash      1

Dun Skipper                         2

Total                             15 species