Flora and Fauna

Flora

[For Fauna (birds), see below Plants]

Plants                                                          23rd September 2016

Compiled by Marilyn MacKellar, with assistance from Rachel Gottesman and Bob Kortright. Version 5.

Alphabetical by common name

Trees, Evergreen

 

Common Name Latin Name Notes
Cedars,  Eastern white Thuja occidentalis
Firs, Balsam?  
Tamarack/Larch Laris larcicin
Pines

Red or Norway

Jack

White, Eastern

 

Pinus resinosa

Pinus banksiana

Pinus strobus

needles in bunches of 2, long

needles in bunches of 2, short

needles in bunches of 5

Spruces

Blue

White

Picea 3 shades with different needles

 

Trees, Deciduous

Common Name Latin Name Notes
Apples [wild]
Alders, Speckled Alnus incana
Ash,  Red Fraxinus pennsylvanica 7 leaflets, wavy edges [not hairy= Green]
Aspen, Trembling Populus tremuloides
Basswood Tilia americana
Birch, White/Silver Betula papyrifera
Buckthorn Rhamnus purshiana
Cherries, Japanese
Gingko
Hawthorn Crataegus two kinds here, one with shiny leaves
Honey Locust Gledisia triacntus
Kentucky coffee tree Gymnocladus dioica
Maples

Amur

Manitoba

Norway

Red

Silver

Sugar

Acer ginnala

Acer negundo

 

Acer rubrum

Acer saccharinum

Acer saccharum

China/Japan decorative alien, from gardens

Alien

Mountain ash, American or Rowan Sorbus americana Orange berries
Oaks

Burr

White

Quercus

 

Quercus alba

pale grey bark
Walnut, black Juglans nigra
Willows

Black

Peach leaf

 

Salix negra

Salix amygdaloides

Largest narrow lance-like leaves

Leaf tips drawn out

Bushes

Common Name Latin Name Notes
Cranberry, Highbush Viburnum opulus var americana
Dogwood

Red osier

Round-leaved

Cornus stolonifera

Cornus rugosa

Elderberry, Common Sambucus canadensis
Gooseberry, Prickly Ribes cynosbati
Honeysuckle Lonicera
Raspberries  see below  
Sumach

Staghorn

Fragrant

Rhus typhina

Rhus aromatica

 

Vines

 

Common Name Latin Name Notes
Bittersweet nightshade Solarnum dulcamara
Wild Grapes (Riverbank grapes?) (Vitis riparum?)

 

 

Flowering plants

 

Common Name Latin Name Notes
Asters:

Azure Aster

Bog Aster?

Calico Aster

Heath Aster

New England Aster

Panicled  Aster

Purple-stemmed Aster

Willow  Aster

Symphyotrichum oolentangiense 

Oclemena nemoralis 

Symphyotrichum lateriflorum 

Symphyotrichum ericoides

Symphyotrichum novae-angliae

Symphyotrichum lanceolatum

Symphyotrichum praealtum

Symphyotrichum praealtum

(formerly Aster oolentangiensis)

(formerly Aster nemoralis) blue, single flower

(formerly Aster lateriflorus)  White

(formerly Aster ericoides)  small white

(formerly Aster novae-angliae)  dark purple

(formerly Aster lanceolatus)   white

(formerly Aster praealtus)  web of veins on leaves

(formerly Aster praealtus)  blue

Beggar-ticks Bidens frindosa pitchfork burs
Bergamot, Wild Monarda fistulosa
Bindweed, Field Convolvulus sepium pointed lobes on leaves
Blazing Star:

Dense

Scaly

 

Liatrus spicata

Liatrus squarosa

Bloodroot Sanguinaria canadensis
Bugle Ajuga reptans Alien
Burdock, Common Arctium minus Alien
Butter & eggs/Toadflax Linaria vulgaris Alien
Buttercup, common Ranunculus aeris
Canada anemone Anemone canadensis near cricket pitch
Chicory Cichorium intybus Alien
Clovers:

Alfalfa/Lucerne

Red clover

White clover

White sweet clover

Medicago sativa

Trifolium pratense]

Trifolium repens

Melilotus alba

All alien
Coltsfoot Tussilago farfara like cucumber leaves when finished flowering
Daisy fleabane?  
Dandelion Taraxacum officinale Alien
Dock, curled Rumex crispus Alien
Dog strangling vine Cynanchum rossicum very invasive  on hillside beside cricket
Flags, yellow  see Iris, yellow  
Forget-me-nots   from a garden, alien
Garlic mustard Allaria petiolata very invasive
Goldenrods:

Bog goldenrod?

Early goldenrod

Canada goldenrod

Grass-leaved goldenrod

Late goldenrod

Rough stemmed?

Tall goldenrod

Zigzag/Broad-leaved

Solidago uliginosa 

Solidago juncea

Solidago Canadensis

Euthamia graminifolia 

Solidago gigantean

Solidago rugosa

Solidago altissima

Solidago flexicaulis

(formerly Solidago purshii)

(formerly Solidago graminifolia)

 

 

Galls

Grape hyacinths from a garden, alien
Hop clover or Black merdick Trifolium agrarium little yellow balls
Indian hemp? Apocynum cannibinum 8787-90 photos
Iris, Yellow Iris pseudoacorus
Jewel weed/Touch-me-not:

Pale

Spotted

Impatiens pallida

Impatiens capensis

yellow

orange

Joe Pye weed, Spotted Eupatorium maculatum
Lamb’s quarters Chenopodium album
Loosestrife, purple Lythrum salicaria Alien
May apples/May umbrellas/Mandrake Podophyllum peltatum
Milkweed, Common Asclepias syriaca
Nettle, Stinging Urtica dioica
Periwinkle/Myrtle Vinca minor from a garden, alien
Plantain:

Common

Ribgrass

 

Plantago major

Plantago lanceolata

Alien

Pale, 3-veined, grass-like leaves, short spike

Poison ivy Toxicodendron radicans
Purslaine Speedwell Veronica peregrina
Ragweed:

Common

Greater?

 

Ambrosia artemisiifolia

Raspberry:

Flowering

Red

Rubus odoratus

Rubus strigosus

 
Roses Rambler, escapee?

?? missed flowers

white bushes (overpass)

wicked thorns, low, round hips  (Native garden)

St John’s Wort:

Shrubby?

Canadian?

 

Hypericum spathulatum

Hypericum canadense

Near Spadina Village exit
Scillas   from a garden, alien
Smartweed (knotweed):

Lady’s thumb

Pennsylvania

Pale

 

Polygonum persicaria

Polygonum pensylvanicum

Polygonum lapathifolium

Alien

paler, no yellow dots on leaves, reddish stems

reddish, pink flowers, reddish joints

green stems, pink flowers drooping

Sow thistle:

Field

Common

Spiny leaved  [not seen]

 

Sonchus  arvensus

Sonchus oleraceus

Sonchus  asper

Alien
Tansey, common Tanacetum vulgare
Thistles:

Canada

Bull

Scotch

 

Cirsium arvense

Cirsium vulgare

Onopordum acanthium

small, branched

wings along stem, pale tips to spines  Alien

triangular spines on stem   Alien

Trefoil, Birdfoot Lotus corniculatis
Trout lilies/Dog-toothed violets/Adder’s tongues Erythronium americanum
Vervain

Blue

White

 

Verbena hastate

Verbena urticifolia

SW corner of native garden
Vetch, purple Vicia americana
Water hemlock Cicula maculata poisonous
Water parsnip Sium suave
Wild carrot/Queen Anne’s lace Daucus carota Alien
Wild lettuce  
Yellow avens Geum aleppicum var strictum

Possibly:

Common Name Latin Name Notes
Biennial wormwood
Bur-marigold?
Fall meadow rue?
Currant or Gooseberry Ribes
  Lysimachia [next to purple loosestrife] – yellow flowers, rel. to primroses next to purple loosestrife – yellow flowers, rel. to primroses
Yellow cup plant   tall with yellow daisy-like flowers, big leaves wrapped around stems  Native garden
Pussytoes, Field   Antennaria neglecta Patches chopped short by mowing to south of native garden

 

Other

Common Name Latin Name Notes
Cattails Typha latifolia
 
Horsetails Equisetum
Phragmites   very invasive, near Footpath overpass
Timothy grass Phleum pratense
Grass like phragmites but different seed head, sandpaper leaves  
 
 

 

References

Hosie, Robert C.

Native trees of Canada.  Canada, Dept of Forestry.  out of print?

Chambers, Brenda et al

Forest plants of Central Ontario.  Lone Pine, 1996

Dickinson, Timothy et al

The ROM field guide to wildflowers of Ontario.  ROM/McClelland & Stewart 2004

McKay, Sheila & Paul Catling

Trees, shrubs & flowers to know in Ontario.  J.M. Dent 1979 (out of print)

Peterson, Roger Tory & Margaret McKenny

A field guide to wildflowers of Northeastern and North-central North America.  Houghton-Mifflin. Also books on trees and shrubs

http://www.houghtonmifflinbooks.com/peterson/plants.cfm

Fauna

Birds

Birds of Cedarvale Ravine, compiled by Ken Morin, July 2017

DUCKS & GEESE

Mallard Duck

Canada Goose

HERONS

Great Blue Heron

VULTURES

Turkey Vulture

HAWKS

Red tailed Hawk

Cooper’s Hawk

Sharp shinned Hawk

Osprey

GULLS

Ring billed Gull

Herring Gull

PIGEON & DOVES

Rock Pigeon

Mourning Dove

CUCKOOS

Yellow billed Cuckoo

GOATSUCKERS

Common Nighthawk

SWIFTS

Chimney Swift

HUMMINGBIRDS

Ruby throated Hummingbird

WOODPECKERS

Downy Woodpecker

Hairy Woodpecker

Northern Flicker

TYRANT FLYCATCHERS

Eastern Wood Peewee

VIREOS

Warbling Vireo

Red eyed Vireo

CROWS & JAYS

Blue Jay

American Crow

SWALLOWS

Tree Swallow

CHICKADEES

Black capped Chickadee

NUTHATCHES

Red breasted Nuthatch

White breasted Nuthatch

WRENS

House Wren

Winter Wren

KINGLETS

Ruby crowned Kinglet

Golden crowned Kinglet

CREEPERS

Brown Creeper

THRUSHES

Hermit Thrush

Swainson’s Thrush

American Robin

MOCKINGBIRDS

Gray Catbird

Northern Mockingbird

STARLINGS

European Starling

WAXWINGS

Cedar Waxwing

WOOD WARBLERS

Yellow Warbler

Chestnut sided Warbler

Magnolia Warbler

Cape May Warbler

Black throated Blue Warbler

Yellow rumped Warbler (Myrtle Warbler)

Black throated Green Warbler

Blackburnian Warbler

Palm Warbler

Black and white Warbler

American Redstart

Ovenbird

Common Yellowthroat

TANAGERS

Scarlet Tanager

EMBERIZIDAE

Easter Towhee

American Tree Sparrow

Chipping Sparrow

Song Sparrow

White throated Sparrow

White crowned Sparrow

Dark eyed Junco (Slate coloured)

CARDINAL & ALLIES

Northern Cardinal

Rose breasted Grosbeak

BLACKBIRDS

Red winged Blackbird

Common Grackle

Brown headed Cowbird

Baltimore Oriole

FINCHES

House Finch

Purple Finch

OLD WORLD SPARROWS

House Sparrow